AgroBio Volume 1 Nomor 2 Tahun 1997_4

BULETIN AgroBio
Volume
1 Nomor 2 Tahun 1997

 

Perbaikan Teknik Budi Daya Tanaman Kedelai

(N. Sunarlim)

Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Tanaman Pangan, Bogor

ABSTRACT

Improvement of Soybean Cultural Practices. N. Sunarlim. Cultural practices of soybeans in lowland and upland areas have differencies and similarities. Soil tillage was not needed in lowland areas, in contrast in upland areas, soil tillage was still needed although in some places minimum tillage was better. In acid soils, liming at the rate of 1,0 -1,5 x exchangeable Aluminum gave high yield. Until now, there are 25 released soybean varieties available and the choice depends on soil type, cropping system, and seasons. In upland areas, the best planting method was dibble. In lowland areas where the soil was too wet dibbie method was not recommended, putting the seeds in the soil surface was better The optimum population to grow soybean was 500,000 plants/ha Using rice straw as a mulch at planting reduce population of weeds, losses of water from the soil and plants damage by beanfly. inoculation with Rhizobium in the areas where previously soybean has never grown was recommended. The application of P and K fertilizers at the low rate was still needed when soybean was planted after rice in lowland, however, in acid upland the rate was higher The effect of foliar spray fertilizer on soybeans was not consistent depended on soil type, season, and nutrient content in the fertilizer. Similary, the effect of growth hormone depended on type of hormone, concentration, time, and rate of application, also on soil type, season, and soybean variety. Planting soybean in upland areas, usually intercropped with other plants such as corn and sorghum If the soybean was 20% shaded, the grain yield was not affected, but if shading was 50% the grain yield decreased by 42%. Line of Lamp/1248-4-4 was the best line to use in intercropping because the decrease of yield was the fewest when it was shaded by artifial shading or corn Beanfly which attacked young soybean plants was controlled by using mulch, tolerant varieties or insecticide application. Since there was no tolerant variety to pod insects, therefore, the used insecticides to control pod insects is still suitable. Another recommended method was using trap crops such as mungbean or corn.

Keywords: Soybean, lowland, upland, cultural practices.

Di Indonesia, pertanaman kedelai biasanya ditanam di lahan sawah (irigasi dan tadah hujan) dan lahan kering (masam dan nonmasam). Pola tanam di kedua lahan tersebut berbeda. Di lahan sawah kedelai ditanam secara monokultur sesudah padi sawah dan di lahan kering sering ditumpangsarikan dengan jagung dan ubi kayu. Dengan adanya perbedaan ini maka penanaman kedelai yang dilakukan akan berbeda sesuai dengan tipe lahan, pola tanam dan jenis tanah serta iklim (curah hujan).
Makalah ini menguraikan hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan terutama di Balittan Bogor (sekarang Balitbio) yang diharapkan dapat digunakan untuk menunjang peningkatan produktivitas tanaman kedelai.

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