Jurnal AgroBio

cov_agrobio_icoJurnal AgroBio merupakan jurnal ilmiah terakreditasi yang diterbitkan oleh Balitbio. Jurnal ini terpublikasi sejak tahun 1998 s.d. 2003. Jurnal AgroBio kemudian berubah menjadi Jurnal AgroBiogen seiring dengan perubahan Balitbio menjadi Balitbiogen dan BB Biogen. Berikut ini adalah daftar artikel beserta berkas PDF dari jurnal AgroBio.

2003

  1. Sunarlim, Novianti and Sutrisno. 2003. Research Development of Agricultural Biotechnology in Indonesia. Buletin agrobio 6 (1):1-7.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Research Development of Agricultural Biotechnology in Indonesia ]
    Research in agricultural biotechnology has been developed since the end of 20 century. In 1985, National Committee was formed under the Minister of Research and Technology. Research in agricultural biotechnology has been increased since Riset Unggulan Terpadu (RUT) under Dewan Riset Nasional and Hibah Bersaing in university were given, which make research program that more than one year were possible to do with a continues fund. Research in plant biotechnology were focused on plant improvement, such as pest and disease resistance, were done for rice, soybean, sweet potato, sugar cane, and chocolate and virus resistance for groundnut, tobacco, papaya, potato, and chili. While in animal science, research in biotechnology were focused on production technology, such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer in dairy cow, and also for food enriched by producing probiotics and enzymes. Even though in theory genetic engineering on cattle has a good impact for the future, several problems (i.e. technical, economics, and social) need a careful consideration. In aquaculture, biotechnology research has been conducted for genes transfer to improve resistance to disease and to promote growth. Biotechnology also used to produce vaccines and to detect virus with accuracy and faster. To anticipate problems that might be occur in application of biotechnology, government has issued biosafety regulation.
    @article{NoviantiSunarlim03p1,
    title = {{Research Development of Agricultural Biotechnology in Indonesia}},
    author = {Novianti Sunarlim and Sutrisno},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {1 - 7},
    volume = {6},
    number = {1},
    year = {2003},
    abstract = {Research in agricultural biotechnology has been developed since the end of 20 century. In 1985, National Committee was formed under the Minister of Research and Technology. Research in agricultural biotechnology has been increased since Riset Unggulan Terpadu (RUT) under Dewan Riset Nasional and Hibah Bersaing in university were given, which make research program that more than one year were possible to do with a continues fund. Research in plant biotechnology were focused on plant improvement, such as pest and disease resistance, were done for rice, soybean, sweet potato, sugar cane, and chocolate and virus resistance for groundnut, tobacco, papaya, potato, and chili. While in animal science, research in biotechnology were focused on production technology, such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer in dairy cow, and also for food enriched by producing probiotics and enzymes. Even though in theory genetic engineering on cattle has a good impact for the future, several problems (i.e. technical, economics, and social) need a careful consideration. In aquaculture, biotechnology research has been conducted for genes transfer to improve resistance to disease and to promote growth. Biotechnology also used to produce vaccines and to detect virus with accuracy and faster. To anticipate problems that might be occur in application of biotechnology, government has issued biosafety regulation.},
    keywords = {biotechnology, research, output, biosafety},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_6_1_01-07.pdf},
    note = {Perkembangan Penelitian Bioteknologi Pertanian di Indonesia}
    }
  2. Herman, Muhammad. 2003. Development of Bt cotton. Buletin agrobio 6 (1):8-25.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Development of Bt cotton ]
    Bt cotton has been grown on over four million hectares by millions of farmers in nine countries including Indonesia since its introduction in 1996. Indonesian farmers in seven districts of South Sulawesi Province have grown Bt cotton at about four to five thousand hectares since 2001. The utilization of Bt cotton in Indonesia is regulated by the Joint Decree of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Forestry and Estate Crops, Minister of Health, and the State Minister of Food and Horticulture 1999 No. 998.1/Kpts/OT.210/9/99; 790a/Kpts-IX/1999; 1145A/MENKES/SKB/IX/199; 015A/NmenegPHOR/09/1999 concerning Biosafety and Food Safety of Genetically Engineered Agricultural Products, and the Decree of Minister of Agriculture 1998 concerning Testing, Evaluation, and Variety Release. The fact that farmers continue to embrace transgenic crops varieties such as Bt cotton provides ample evidence that they have been beneficial to the farm. Bt cotton provides significant multiple benefits such as economic advantages to the farmers, reduce use of broad spectrum insecticides, reduce of farmers’ toxicity due to exposure of insecticides. In addition to the fact that the over whelming majority of scientists, as well as every major scientific organization that has evaluated the safety of transgenic crops including Bt cotton, find them to be as safe as or safer than conventional crops, provides ample evidence that health and environmental issues have been adequately addressed.
    @article{MuhammadHerman03p8,
    title = {{Development of Bt cotton}},
    author = {Muhammad Herman},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {8 - 25},
    volume = {6},
    number = {1},
    year = {2003},
    abstract = {Bt cotton has been grown on over four million hectares by millions of farmers in nine countries including Indonesia since its introduction in 1996. Indonesian farmers in seven districts of South Sulawesi Province have grown Bt cotton at about four to five thousand hectares since 2001. The utilization of Bt cotton in Indonesia is regulated by the Joint Decree of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Forestry and Estate Crops, Minister of Health, and the State Minister of Food and Horticulture 1999 No. 998.1/Kpts/OT.210/9/99; 790a/Kpts-IX/1999; 1145A/MENKES/SKB/IX/199; 015A/NmenegPHOR/09/1999 concerning Biosafety and Food Safety of Genetically Engineered Agricultural Products, and the Decree of Minister of Agriculture 1998 concerning Testing, Evaluation, and Variety Release. The fact that farmers continue to embrace transgenic crops varieties such as Bt cotton provides ample evidence that they have been beneficial to the farm. Bt cotton provides significant multiple benefits such as economic advantages to the farmers, reduce use of broad spectrum insecticides, reduce of farmers' toxicity due to exposure of insecticides. In addition to the fact that the over whelming majority of scientists, as well as every major scientific organization that has evaluated the safety of transgenic crops including Bt cotton, find them to be as safe as or safer than conventional crops, provides ample evidence that health and environmental issues have been adequately addressed.},
    keywords = {bt cotton, transgenic},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_6_1_08-25.pdf},
    note = {Status Perkembangan Kapas Bt}
    }
  3. Rahmawati, Syamsidah. 2003. Alternative Selectable Marker Gene for Plant Transformation. Buletin agrobio 6 (1):26-33.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Alternative Selectable Marker Gene for Plant Transformation ]
    t the moment, antibiotic and herbicide resistant genes are the most commonly used selectable markers for plant transformation. However, issues on allergenicity or toxicity, gene transfer and others, which were suspected to cause negative impact on human health and environment, have raised debate of using this selection system around the world. Many non government organizations world wide, including the Commission of the European Communities, discourage the use of the antibiotic selection system. Based on these reasons, it is important to find alternative selectable markers. In this paper, four alternative selection systems that are potentially safe and reported effective in plant transformation system were discussed. Two systems, the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) and xylose isomerase (Xyla), used mannose and xylose, respectively, as selective agents. Furthermore, enzyme xylose isomerase has been widely used in starch industry and certain food processing. MAT vector system was developed to produce selectable marker-free transgenic plants, while the green fluorescent protein (GFP) enable to select transformed tissues visually. These systems have been applied in various plant species.
    @article{SyamsidahRahmawati03p26,
    title = {{Alternative Selectable Marker Gene for Plant Transformation}},
    author = {Syamsidah Rahmawati},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {26 - 33},
    volume = {6},
    number = {1},
    year = {2003},
    abstract = {t the moment, antibiotic and herbicide resistant genes are the most commonly used selectable markers for plant transformation. However, issues on allergenicity or toxicity, gene transfer and others, which were suspected to cause negative impact on human health and environment, have raised debate of using this selection system around the world. Many non government organizations world wide, including the Commission of the European Communities, discourage the use of the antibiotic selection system. Based on these reasons, it is important to find alternative selectable markers. In this paper, four alternative selection systems that are potentially safe and reported effective in plant transformation system were discussed. Two systems, the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) and xylose isomerase (Xyla), used mannose and xylose, respectively, as selective agents. Furthermore, enzyme xylose isomerase has been widely used in starch industry and certain food processing. MAT vector system was developed to produce selectable marker-free transgenic plants, while the green fluorescent protein (GFP) enable to select transformed tissues visually. These systems have been applied in various plant species.},
    keywords = {alternative selectable marker, selection system, plant transformation},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_6_1_26-33.pdf},
    note = {Gen Penyeleksi Alternatif untuk Transformasi Tanaman}
    }
  4. T, Ika Roostika and Ika Mariska. 2003. Kultur In Vitro Nanas secara Organogenesis dan Embriogenesis Somatik: Pamanfaatan dan Peluangnya. Buletin agrobio 6 (1):34-40.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Kultur In Vitro Nanas secara Organogenesis dan Embriogenesis Somatik: Pamanfaatan dan Peluangnya ]
    Sistem regenerasi pada kultur in vitro dapat dilakukan melalui dua jalur, yaitu jalur organogenesis dan embriogenesis. Teknik organogenesis dan embriogenesis pada tanaman nanas telah banyak diteliti, bahkan penelitian tentang perhitungan ekonominya juga sudah pernah dilakukan. Penerapan organogenesis dan embriogenesis tergantung pada tujuan yang dikehendaki. Kedua teknik tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai kebutuhan seperti perbanyakan bibit, konservasi plasma nutfah, perbaikan tanaman melalui variasi somaklonal ataupun manipulasi genetik, hingga pemisahan tanaman khimera, serta pemeliharaan tanaman mutan yang menguntungkan. Prospek penerapan teknik kultur in vitro tanaman nanas di Indonesia khususnya di daerah Subang cukup bagus terutama untuk mengatasi permasalahan perbanyakan nanas Si Madu yang kemungkinan merupakan pertumbuhan sel mutan dari tanaman khimera. Masalah yang dihadapi dalam perbanyakan vegetatif nanas Si Madu secara konvensional adalah timbulnya keragaman sehingga sifat pohon induknya tidak dapat dipertahankan. Melalui jalur embrio-genesis, karakteristik nanas Si Madu diharapkan dapat dipertahankan. Dalam hal ini tanaman (planlet) yang dihasilkan dari jalur embriogenesis berasal dari satu sel sehingga terjadinya khimera dapat dihindari. Tanaman-tanaman hasil embriogenesis dapat diseleksi di tingkat lapang atau dapat dideteksi dengan menggunakan markah isozim dan RAPD. Tanaman yang mempunyai karakteristik nanas Si Madu dapat digunakan sebagai sumber bahan perbanyakan secara konvensional atau sebagai sumber eksplan untuk diperbanyak kembali secara kultur in vitro.
    @article{IkaRoostikaT03p34,
    title = {{Kultur In Vitro Nanas secara Organogenesis dan Embriogenesis Somatik: Pamanfaatan dan Peluangnya}},
    author = {Ika Roostika T and Ika Mariska},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {34 - 40},
    volume = {6},
    number = {1},
    year = {2003},
    abstract = {Sistem regenerasi pada kultur in vitro dapat dilakukan melalui dua jalur, yaitu jalur organogenesis dan embriogenesis. Teknik organogenesis dan embriogenesis pada tanaman nanas telah banyak diteliti, bahkan penelitian tentang perhitungan ekonominya juga sudah pernah dilakukan. Penerapan organogenesis dan embriogenesis tergantung pada tujuan yang dikehendaki. Kedua teknik tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai kebutuhan seperti perbanyakan bibit, konservasi plasma nutfah, perbaikan tanaman melalui variasi somaklonal ataupun manipulasi genetik, hingga pemisahan tanaman khimera, serta pemeliharaan tanaman mutan yang menguntungkan. Prospek penerapan teknik kultur in vitro tanaman nanas di Indonesia khususnya di daerah Subang cukup bagus terutama untuk mengatasi permasalahan perbanyakan nanas Si Madu yang kemungkinan merupakan pertumbuhan sel mutan dari tanaman khimera. Masalah yang dihadapi dalam perbanyakan vegetatif nanas Si Madu secara konvensional adalah timbulnya keragaman sehingga sifat pohon induknya tidak dapat dipertahankan. Melalui jalur embrio-genesis, karakteristik nanas Si Madu diharapkan dapat dipertahankan. Dalam hal ini tanaman (planlet) yang dihasilkan dari jalur embriogenesis berasal dari satu sel sehingga terjadinya khimera dapat dihindari. Tanaman-tanaman hasil embriogenesis dapat diseleksi di tingkat lapang atau dapat dideteksi dengan menggunakan markah isozim dan RAPD. Tanaman yang mempunyai karakteristik nanas Si Madu dapat digunakan sebagai sumber bahan perbanyakan secara konvensional atau sebagai sumber eksplan untuk diperbanyak kembali secara kultur in vitro.},
    keywords = {organogenesis, embriogenesis, nanas, ananas comosus},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_6_1_34-40.pdf},
    note = {In Vitro Culture of Pineapple by Organogenesis and Somatic Embryogenesis: Its Utilization and Prospect}
    }

2002

  1. Herman, Muhammad. 2002. A Crop Resistant to Insect Pest Derived from Genetic Engineering. Buletin agrobio 5 (1):1-13.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: A Crop Resistant to Insect Pest Derived from Genetic Engineering ]
    Biotechnology through genetic engineering offers the opportunity for quickly modifying an organism such as plant for desired trait. A resistant crop to a certain insect pest can be developed through a genetic engineering technology by inserting a foreign gene derived from various organisms such as a Bt gene from a soil bacteria. Global area of transgenic crops resistant to insect pest and combined trait with tolerant to herbicide for 2002 is 14.5 millions hectares or about 25% of the total area of transgenic crops. Genetic engineering technology and its products that are transgenic crops have been utilized by farmers and research scientists. Currently research on genetic engineering for crop improvement is widely conducted at different research institute and universities in Indonesia. Most research activities on genetic engineering only focus on developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pest. In Indonesia, genetic engineering has been applied as an alternative approach for crop improvement when conventional breeding encounter a constraint for example lack of resistant gene in the germplasm collection, such as resistant gene for rice stemborer and soybean pod borer. The utilization of transgenic crops in Indonesia are regulated by the Joint Decree of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Forestry and Estate Crops, Minister of Health, and the State Minister of Food and Horticulture 1999 concerning Biosafety and Food Safety of Genetically Engineered Agricultural Products, and the Decree of Minister of Agriculture 1998 concerning Testing, Evaluation, and Variety Release. Transgenic crops resistant to insect pest provides significant multiple benefits such as economic advantages to the farmers, reduce use of broad spectrum insecticides, reduce of farmers toxicity due to exposure of insecticides.
    @article{MuhammadHerman02p1,
    title = {{A Crop Resistant to Insect Pest Derived from Genetic Engineering}},
    author = {Muhammad Herman},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {1 - 13},
    volume = {5},
    number = {1},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Biotechnology through genetic engineering offers the opportunity for quickly modifying an organism such as plant for desired trait. A resistant crop to a certain insect pest can be developed through a genetic engineering technology by inserting a foreign gene derived from various organisms such as a Bt gene from a soil bacteria. Global area of transgenic crops resistant to insect pest and combined trait with tolerant to herbicide for 2002 is 14.5 millions hectares or about 25% of the total area of transgenic crops. Genetic engineering technology and its products that are transgenic crops have been utilized by farmers and research scientists. Currently research on genetic engineering for crop improvement is widely conducted at different research institute and universities in Indonesia. Most research activities on genetic engineering only focus on developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pest. In Indonesia, genetic engineering has been applied as an alternative approach for crop improvement when conventional breeding encounter a constraint for example lack of resistant gene in the germplasm collection, such as resistant gene for rice stemborer and soybean pod borer. The utilization of transgenic crops in Indonesia are regulated by the Joint Decree of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Forestry and Estate Crops, Minister of Health, and the State Minister of Food and Horticulture 1999 concerning Biosafety and Food Safety of Genetically Engineered Agricultural Products, and the Decree of Minister of Agriculture 1998 concerning Testing, Evaluation, and Variety Release. Transgenic crops resistant to insect pest provides significant multiple benefits such as economic advantages to the farmers, reduce use of broad spectrum insecticides, reduce of farmers toxicity due to exposure of insecticides.},
    keywords = {biotechnology, genetic engineering technology, transgenic crops},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_1_01-13.pdf},
    note = {Perakitan Tanaman Tahan Serangga Hama melalui Teknik Rekayasa Genetik}
    }
  2. Somantri, Ida Hanarida. 2002. Padi Liar (Oryza spp.), Keberadaan dan Penelitiannya di Indonesia. Buletin agrobio 5 (1):14-20.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Padi Liar (Oryza spp.), Keberadaan dan Penelitiannya di Indonesia ]
    Padi adalah tanaman serealia penting dan digunakan sebagai makanan pokok oleh sepertiga penduduk dunia. Genus Oryza di mana padi budi daya termasuk didalamnya mempunyai sekitar 24 spesies liar. Keberadaan spesies padi liar telah dilaporkan, tetapi eksplorasi yang terbaru telah dilakukan pada tahun 1998 dan 1999 di Sulawesi dan Irian Jaya, terutama untuk koleksi padi liar. Eksplorasi dilakukan dalam rangka kerja sama antara Puslitbangtan dan IRRI. Satu spesies Oryza meyeriana dan empat spesies lainnya (O. officinalis, O. longiglumis, O. rufipogon, and O. meridionalis) telah ditemukan di Sulawesi dan Irian Jaya. O. meredionalis merupakan penemuan pertama di Indonesia, sebelumnya hanya dilaporkan ada secara endemik di pantai utara Australia. Penelitian untuk perbaikan padi yang melibatkan spesies padi liar belum begitu berkembang di Indonesia. Namun demikian, beberapa persilangan antara padi budi daya dan padi liar serta evaluasi terhadap cekaman biotik dan abiotik telah dilakukan. Telah pula dihasilkan benih hasil persilangan padi budi daya dengan O. officinalis, O. australiensis, O. grandiglumis, O. latifolia, O. punctata, O. brachyanta, O. alta, O. glumaepatula, and O. malamphuzaensis.
    @article{IdaHanaridaSomantri02p14,
    title = {{Padi Liar (Oryza spp.), Keberadaan dan Penelitiannya di Indonesia}},
    author = {Ida Hanarida Somantri},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {14 - 20},
    volume = {5},
    number = {1},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Padi adalah tanaman serealia penting dan digunakan sebagai makanan pokok oleh sepertiga penduduk dunia. Genus Oryza di mana padi budi daya termasuk didalamnya mempunyai sekitar 24 spesies liar. Keberadaan spesies padi liar telah dilaporkan, tetapi eksplorasi yang terbaru telah dilakukan pada tahun 1998 dan 1999 di Sulawesi dan Irian Jaya, terutama untuk koleksi padi liar. Eksplorasi dilakukan dalam rangka kerja sama antara Puslitbangtan dan IRRI. Satu spesies Oryza meyeriana dan empat spesies lainnya (O. officinalis, O. longiglumis, O. rufipogon, and O. meridionalis) telah ditemukan di Sulawesi dan Irian Jaya. O. meredionalis merupakan penemuan pertama di Indonesia, sebelumnya hanya dilaporkan ada secara endemik di pantai utara Australia. Penelitian untuk perbaikan padi yang melibatkan spesies padi liar belum begitu berkembang di Indonesia. Namun demikian, beberapa persilangan antara padi budi daya dan padi liar serta evaluasi terhadap cekaman biotik dan abiotik telah dilakukan. Telah pula dihasilkan benih hasil persilangan padi budi daya dengan O. officinalis, O. australiensis, O. grandiglumis, O. latifolia, O. punctata, O. brachyanta, O. alta, O. glumaepatula, and O. malamphuzaensis.},
    keywords = {oryza sp, padi liar, indonesia},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_1_14-20.pdf},
    note = {Wild Rice (Oryza spp.), Their Existence and Research in Indonesia}
    }
  3. Bahagiawati. 2002. The Use of Bacillus thuringiensis as Bioinsecticides. Buletin agrobio 5 (1):21-28.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: The Use of Bacillus thuringiensis as Bioinsecticides ]
    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been known as a microbial pesticide since decades. This bacteria is a gram-positive soil bacteria characterized by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions during sporulation. Bt-bioinsecticide has a significant advantage compare to synthetic pesticides because of its toxicity spesificity against targeted insects and relatively harmless to non-target organisms. This review discuss about mode of action, toxicity spesificity, and manipulation of this biopesticide for commercial purpose. In addition, this review also inform about cases where insect became resistance to this biopesticide and the effect of this bioinsecticide to some known natural enemies. The prospect of this bacteria either as microbial spray insecti-cide and as transgenic-Bt plant are also mentioned in this review.
    @article{Bahagiawati02p21,
    title = {{The Use of Bacillus thuringiensis as Bioinsecticides}},
    author = {Bahagiawati},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {21 - 28},
    volume = {5},
    number = {1},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been known as a microbial pesticide since decades. This bacteria is a gram-positive soil bacteria characterized by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions during sporulation. Bt-bioinsecticide has a significant advantage compare to synthetic pesticides because of its toxicity spesificity against targeted insects and relatively harmless to non-target organisms. This review discuss about mode of action, toxicity spesificity, and manipulation of this biopesticide for commercial purpose. In addition, this review also inform about cases where insect became resistance to this biopesticide and the effect of this bioinsecticide to some known natural enemies. The prospect of this bacteria either as microbial spray insecti-cide and as transgenic-Bt plant are also mentioned in this review.},
    keywords = {bacillus thuringiensis, microbial pesticides, transgenic plant},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_1_21-28.pdf},
    note = {Penggunaan Bacillus thuringiensis sebagai Bioinsektisida}
    }
  4. Richana, Nur. 2002. Production and Prospects of Xylanases for Bioindustry Development in Indonesia. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):29-36.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Production and Prospects of Xylanases for Bioindustry Development in Indonesia ]
    Generally various xylanolytic enzyme systems as like xylanase are from bacteria and fungi. Comercial application suggested for xylanases involve the conversion of xylan, which is present in wastes of agricultural and food industry into xylose. Similarly, xylanases could be used for the clarification of juices, for the extraction of coffee, plant oils, and starch, and for poultry and bleaching of pulp. Xylanases production could be conducted either by paper industry or another enzyme industry. Cell biomass as by product of enzyme industry has a potential in the decomposition of organic matter. In order to increase competitive advantages the production cost should be reducced due to the cheap of raw material and increased efficiency of down stream processing.
    @article{NurRichana02p29,
    title = {{Production and Prospects of Xylanases for Bioindustry Development in Indonesia}},
    author = {Nur Richana},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {29 - 36},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Generally various xylanolytic enzyme systems as like xylanase are from bacteria and fungi. Comercial application suggested for xylanases involve the conversion of xylan, which is present in wastes of agricultural and food industry into xylose. Similarly, xylanases could be used for the clarification of juices, for the extraction of coffee, plant oils, and starch, and for poultry and bleaching of pulp. Xylanases production could be conducted either by paper industry or another enzyme industry. Cell biomass as by product of enzyme industry has a potential in the decomposition of organic matter. In order to increase competitive advantages the production cost should be reducced due to the cheap of raw material and increased efficiency of down stream processing.},
    keywords = {production, xylanases, bioindustry},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_1_29-36.pdf},
    note = {Produksi dan Prospek Enzim Xilanase dalam Pengembangan Bioindustri di Indonesia}
    }
  5. Pardal, Saptowo J.. 2002. Progress of Plant Regeneration and Transformation on Soybean. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):37-44.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Progress of Plant Regeneration and Transformation on Soybean ]
    Soybean is one of the genotype that still difficult to manipulate in vitro. Some reports showed that soybean can be regenerated through in vitro culture, but infact it can not be repeated successfully by other laboratories. Type of cells or explants and genotype play important role in the plant regeneration of soybean. Soybean mainly can be regenerate through two pathways, i.e. shoot morphogenesis (organogenesis) and somatic embryogenesis. Both pathway have an advantage and disadvantage. Shoot morphogenesis can be induce easily from the cotyledonary node segment of soybean and it will have the same character as a parent, but the number of shoot is limited. On another hand, somatic embryogenesis can not be induce easily from the soybean explants, but the number of embryos or embryogenic callus is plenty if it can be induced. Due to the difficulties of plant regeneration of soybean so far, the genetic transformation of soybean is still far from the routine system. Although it has been reported by the two laboratories using two different protocols. The success of soybean transformation with foreign gene is reported in 1988 by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment method.
    @article{Pardal02p37,
    title = {{Progress of Plant Regeneration and Transformation on Soybean}},
    author = {Saptowo J. Pardal},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {37 - 44},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Soybean is one of the genotype that still difficult to manipulate in vitro. Some reports showed that soybean can be regenerated through in vitro culture, but infact it can not be repeated successfully by other laboratories. Type of cells or explants and genotype play important role in the plant regeneration of soybean. Soybean mainly can be regenerate through two pathways, i.e. shoot morphogenesis (organogenesis) and somatic embryogenesis. Both pathway have an advantage and disadvantage. Shoot morphogenesis can be induce easily from the cotyledonary node segment of soybean and it will have the same character as a parent, but the number of shoot is limited. On another hand, somatic embryogenesis can not be induce easily from the soybean explants, but the number of embryos or embryogenic callus is plenty if it can be induced. Due to the difficulties of plant regeneration of soybean so far, the genetic transformation of soybean is still far from the routine system. Although it has been reported by the two laboratories using two different protocols. The success of soybean transformation with foreign gene is reported in 1988 by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment method.},
    keywords = {soybean, plant regeneration, genetic transformation},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_2_37-44.pdf},
    note = {Perkembangan Penelitian Regenerasi dan Transformasi pada Tanaman Kedelai}
    }
  6. Mariska, Ika. 2002. In Vitro Research Development on Industrial, Food, and Horticulture Crops. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):45-50.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: In Vitro Research Development on Industrial, Food, and Horticulture Crops ]
    Studies on plant propagation through tissue culture have been applied in different crops, including industrial, horticultural, and different endanger species of medicinal crops. Many factors affected the success of plant propagation of perennial crops. Tissue culture involves various compound (organic or inorganic) in growing media, so that in developing tissue culture, one will need the knowledge in plant physiology, biochemistry, genetic, and plant breeding. With the basic science, experience and strong intuitions, different problems in regeneration system can be solved. Plant genetic improvement have been applied on vanilla, patchouli, ginger, black pepper, and soybean. The methods used in those crops were embryo rescue in vanilla, in vitro selection in black pepper and soybean, and protoplast fusion in eggplant. In soybean, it has been produced different lines of generation 6 (F6) which were planted in acid soil. The lines produced the pods more that any variety released as tolerant variety to acid soil. To transfer the resistance traits to soil borne pathogens protoplast fusion technique has been applied, where Solanum aethiopicum (resitant) was fussed to cultivated eggplant (S. melongena). The anthers of the fused progenies were further cultured to produce the haploid plants, which further backcrossed to S. melongena. The F1 of the backcross (BC1) resistant to soilborn pathogen and the fruits resemblanced the fruits of S. melongena. The processes were supported by breeders, plant pathologist, and agronomist. Genetic conservation has been focused to the endangered medicinal crops. Seven species of endanger medicinal crops and other potential species have been conserved in vitro
    @article{IkaMariska02p45,
    title = {{In Vitro Research Development on Industrial, Food, and Horticulture Crops}},
    author = {Ika Mariska},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {45 - 50},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Studies on plant propagation through tissue culture have been applied in different crops, including industrial, horticultural, and different endanger species of medicinal crops. Many factors affected the success of plant propagation of perennial crops. Tissue culture involves various compound (organic or inorganic) in growing media, so that in developing tissue culture, one will need the knowledge in plant physiology, biochemistry, genetic, and plant breeding. With the basic science, experience and strong intuitions, different problems in regeneration system can be solved. Plant genetic improvement have been applied on vanilla, patchouli, ginger, black pepper, and soybean. The methods used in those crops were embryo rescue in vanilla, in vitro selection in black pepper and soybean, and protoplast fusion in eggplant. In soybean, it has been produced different lines of generation 6 (F6) which were planted in acid soil. The lines produced the pods more that any variety released as tolerant variety to acid soil. To transfer the resistance traits to soil borne pathogens protoplast fusion technique has been applied, where Solanum aethiopicum (resitant) was fussed to cultivated eggplant (S. melongena). The anthers of the fused progenies were further cultured to produce the haploid plants, which further backcrossed to S. melongena. The F1 of the backcross (BC1) resistant to soilborn pathogen and the fruits resemblanced the fruits of S. melongena. The processes were supported by breeders, plant pathologist, and agronomist. Genetic conservation has been focused to the endangered medicinal crops. Seven species of endanger medicinal crops and other potential species have been conserved in vitro},
    keywords = {in vitro, industrial crop, food crop, horticulture crop},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_2_45-50.pdf},
    note = {Perkembangan Penelitian Kultur In Vitro pada Tanaman Industri, Pangan, and Hortikultura}
    }
  7. Purnamaningsih, Ragapadmi. 2002. Plant Regeneration trough Somatic Embryogenesis and Some Gene Expression. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):51-58.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Plant Regeneration trough Somatic Embryogenesis and Some Gene Expression ]
    The agriculture system need to be enhanced. In order that it is needed the qualified and uniform seedlings in plenty quantity. However it is very difficult to get that from conventional method. By using tissue culture method, seedling can be multiplied. The advantages of this method are (1) seedling can be obtained in plenty quantity, (2) seeedling can be obtained in short time relatively, and (3) the seedlings have the same character with the mother plant. Multiplication of explant by using embryogenesis somatic is the one technique that can be applied. With this technique explant can be induced to form somatic seedling from several specific stages: embryogenic callus induction, maturation, germination, and hardening. All of the stages are depend on kind of explant and the composition of nutrition in the culture media (carbohydrate sources, kind, and concentration of plant growth regulator, etc.). Embryogenesis somatic process is regulated by several genes CHB3, CHB4, CHB5, and CHB6. The expression of these genes determine the stage of embryo development untill somatic seedlings are formed.
    @article{RagapadmiPurnamaningsih02p51,
    title = {{Plant Regeneration trough Somatic Embryogenesis and Some Gene Expression}},
    author = {Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {51 - 58},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {The agriculture system need to be enhanced. In order that it is needed the qualified and uniform seedlings in plenty quantity. However it is very difficult to get that from conventional method. By using tissue culture method, seedling can be multiplied. The advantages of this method are (1) seedling can be obtained in plenty quantity, (2) seeedling can be obtained in short time relatively, and (3) the seedlings have the same character with the mother plant. Multiplication of explant by using embryogenesis somatic is the one technique that can be applied. With this technique explant can be induced to form somatic seedling from several specific stages: embryogenic callus induction, maturation, germination, and hardening. All of the stages are depend on kind of explant and the composition of nutrition in the culture media (carbohydrate sources, kind, and concentration of plant growth regulator, etc.). Embryogenesis somatic process is regulated by several genes CHB3, CHB4, CHB5, and CHB6. The expression of these genes determine the stage of embryo development untill somatic seedlings are formed.},
    keywords = {tissue culture, embryogenesis},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_2_51-58.pdf},
    note = {Regenerasi Tanaman melalui Embriogenesis Somatik dan Beberapa Gen yang Mengendalikannya}
    }
  8. Suryadi, Yadi and M. Machmud. 2002. Genetic Variability of Ralstonia solanacearum Strain based on the Characterization using DNA Analysis Technique. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):59-66.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Genetic Variability of Ralstonia solanacearum Strain based on the Characterization using DNA Analysis Technique ]
    Ralstonia solanacearum the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease has a wide range of genetic variability. Nucleic acid-based analysis to characterize the pathogen i.e. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique has shown two different groups of strains which corresponded with geographical origins. The DNA fingerprint analysis developed recently included screening DNA primer of various PCR-based assay against genomic DNA of R. solanacearum. Studies on the characteristics of genomic DNA of R. solanacearum isolates have been done i.e. using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP) analysis. These diagnosis assays will be of further used to provide specific DNA profiles that can be applied for epidemiological study and bacterial wilt control as well.
    @article{YadiSuryadi02p59,
    title = {{Genetic Variability of Ralstonia solanacearum Strain based on the Characterization using DNA Analysis Technique}},
    author = {Yadi Suryadi and M. Machmud},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {59 - 66},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Ralstonia solanacearum the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease has a wide range of genetic variability. Nucleic acid-based analysis to characterize the pathogen i.e. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique has shown two different groups of strains which corresponded with geographical origins. The DNA fingerprint analysis developed recently included screening DNA primer of various PCR-based assay against genomic DNA of R. solanacearum. Studies on the characteristics of genomic DNA of R. solanacearum isolates have been done i.e. using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP) analysis. These diagnosis assays will be of further used to provide specific DNA profiles that can be applied for epidemiological study and bacterial wilt control as well.},
    keywords = {R. solanacearum, genetic variability, diagnosis},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_2_59-66.pdf},
    note = {Keragaman Genetik Strain Ralstonia solanacearum berdasarkan Karakterisasi Menggunakan Teknik Berbasis Asam Nukleat}
    }
  9. Purwanti, Haeni. 2002. Late Blight of Potato and Tomato [Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary]: Identification of problems in Indonesia. Buletin agrobio 5 (2):67-72.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Late Blight of Potato and Tomato [Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary]: Identification of problems in Indonesia ]
    Late blight of potato and tomato is one of the most important diseases of potato and tomato in Indonesia. Damages by the disease had increased due to wide spread cultivation of modern high yielding potato and tomato varieties. The disease caused serious losses, yield reductions by late blight ranged from 10-100%. The main problem of late blight disease of potato and tomato was genetic variability of P. infestans and resistance to metalaxyl.
    @article{HaeniPurwanti02p67,
    title = {{Late Blight of Potato and Tomato [Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary]: Identification of problems in Indonesia}},
    author = {Haeni Purwanti},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {67 - 72},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    year = {2002},
    abstract = {Late blight of potato and tomato is one of the most important diseases of potato and tomato in Indonesia. Damages by the disease had increased due to wide spread cultivation of modern high yielding potato and tomato varieties. The disease caused serious losses, yield reductions by late blight ranged from 10-100%. The main problem of late blight disease of potato and tomato was genetic variability of P. infestans and resistance to metalaxyl.},
    keywords = {late blight, potato, tomato, identification},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_5_2_67-72.pdf},
    note = {Penyakit Hawar Daun (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary) pada Kentang dan Tomat: Identifikasi Permasalahan di Indonesia}
    }

2001

  1. Bahagiawati. 2001. Management of Insect Pest Resistance of Transgenic Plant. 4 (1):1-8.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Management of Insect Pest Resistance of Transgenic Plant ]
    Genetic engineering with Bt genes is a powerful technology for protecting crops against insect pests. Crop cultivars carrying Bt genes, however, have some weaknesses, as many other insect control technologies, i.e. insect can evolve resistance to the genes, thereby eliminating their effectiveness. Insect pests have evolved resistance to all classes of widely used insecticides, including Bt products that were applied as sprays and to numerous crop varieties produced through conventional breeding program. The insect adaptation to resistant cultivars results in substantial costs to society, such as crop failures, environmental damages, and loss of useful products. For these reasons, there is a need to develop technologies that can manage problems on the insect pest resistances. This paper presents some cases where insect pests adapted to pesticides, resistant cultivars, and Bt-sprays. In addition, the mechanism of resistance and the inheritance of resistant genes in the insects are discussed. Some research strategies and implementation programs are also proposed and discussed in this paper.
    @article{Bahagiawati01p1,
    title = {{Management of Insect Pest Resistance of Transgenic Plant}},
    author = {Bahagiawati},
    pages = {1 - 8},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Genetic engineering with Bt genes is a powerful technology for protecting crops against insect pests. Crop cultivars carrying Bt genes, however, have some weaknesses, as many other insect control technologies, i.e. insect can evolve resistance to the genes, thereby eliminating their effectiveness. Insect pests have evolved resistance to all classes of widely used insecticides, including Bt products that were applied as sprays and to numerous crop varieties produced through conventional breeding program. The insect adaptation to resistant cultivars results in substantial costs to society, such as crop failures, environmental damages, and loss of useful products. For these reasons, there is a need to develop technologies that can manage problems on the insect pest resistances. This paper presents some cases where insect pests adapted to pesticides, resistant cultivars, and Bt-sprays. In addition, the mechanism of resistance and the inheritance of resistant genes in the insects are discussed. Some research strategies and implementation programs are also proposed and discussed in this paper.},
    keywords = {transgenic plant, resistant management, bacillus thuringiensis},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_1_01-08.pdf},
    note = {Manajemen Resistensi Serangga Hama pada Pertanaman Tanaman Transgenik Bt}
    }
  2. Pardal, Saptowo Jumali. 2001. The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering . Buletin agrobio 4 (2):45-49.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering ]
    The fruit provides a proper environment for seeds production, protection, and dispersal. Fruit set and development usually takes places only after pollination and fertilization, and fertilized fruits contain seeds. The development of the fruit in the absence of pollination and fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpy fruits are seedless. Parthenocarpy can have either a genetic basis (genetic or natural parthenocarpy) or it can be artificially induced. On the normal fruits, pollination following with fertilization will increase auxin synthesis and cells division in ovary. It will trigger the fruit set and growth. Fertilized seeds will supply an auxin for fruit development. On the parthenocarpy fruits, seeds as source of auxin are replaced by phytohormones (gibberellins or auxins) or hormone analogues. Parthenocarpy can be artificially induced in several plant species by treating flowers with plant growth factors or by pollination either with incompatible pollen or with X-rays irradiated pollen. In the last few years, several methods have been proposed and/or developed at confering parthenocarpic fruit development by plant genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA methods aimed to confer parthenocarpy can be distinct in two types of approach (1) to unballance embryo development and/or to block seed production in transgenic plants without curtailing fruit development, (2) to express the phytohormone in the desired organ, such as ovary and/or its tissues (i.e. ovules) to trigger parthenocarpic fruit development. The second approach was more successful than the first approach. For example, the use of chimeric gene defh9-iaaM which expresses the IAA specifically on the placenta and ovule can induce parthenocarpic fruits development in several plant species belonging to four families (i.e. Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae).
    @article{SaptowoJumaliPardal01p45,
    title = {{The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering
    }},
    author = {Saptowo Jumali Pardal},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio
    },
    pages = {45-49
    },
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {The fruit provides a proper environment for seeds production, protection, and dispersal.
    Fruit set and development usually takes places only after pollination and fertilization, and
    fertilized fruits contain seeds. The development of the fruit in the absence of pollination and
    fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpy fruits are seedless. Parthenocarpy can have
    either a genetic basis (genetic or natural parthenocarpy) or it can be artificially induced. On the
    normal fruits, pollination following with fertilization will increase auxin synthesis and cells
    division in ovary. It will trigger the fruit set and growth. Fertilized seeds will supply an auxin for
    fruit development. On the parthenocarpy fruits, seeds as source of auxin are replaced by
    phytohormones (gibberellins or auxins) or hormone analogues. Parthenocarpy can be artificially
    induced in several plant species by treating flowers with plant growth factors or by pollination
    either with incompatible pollen or with X-rays irradiated pollen. In the last few years, several
    methods have been proposed and/or developed at confering parthenocarpic fruit development
    by plant genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA methods aimed to confer parthenocarpy can
    be distinct in two types of approach (1) to unballance embryo development and/or to block seed
    production in transgenic plants without curtailing fruit development, (2) to express the
    phytohormone in the desired organ, such as ovary and/or its tissues (i.e. ovules) to trigger
    parthenocarpic fruit development. The second approach was more successful than the first
    approach. For example, the use of chimeric gene defh9-iaaM which expresses the IAA
    specifically on the placenta and ovule can induce parthenocarpic fruits development in several
    plant species belonging to four families (i.e. Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, and
    Rosaceae).
    },
    keywords = {Parthenocarpic fruit, genetic engineering
    },
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_45-49.pdf},
    note = {Pembentukan Buah Partenokarpi
    melalui Rekayasa Genetika
    }
    }
  3. Sutrisno. 2001. Pembentukan Tanaman Tahan Serangga Hama melalui Bioteknologi. Buletin agrobio 4 (1):9-12.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Pembentukan Tanaman Tahan Serangga Hama melalui Bioteknologi ]
    Sejumlah tanaman tahan serangga hama telah ditanam di seluruh dunia sejak beberapa waktu yang lalu. Pembentukan tanaman tahan serangga hama akan terus berlanjut untuk mengantisipasi timbulnya serangga hama biotipe baru dan pergeseran status serangga hama utama. Bioteknologi menawarkan alat ampuh untuk digunakan dalam pembuatan tanaman tahan serangga hama secara komplemeter dengan metode konvensional. Alat bioteknologi itu ialah kultur anter, fusi protoplas, kultur embrio, variasi somaklonal, seleksi dibantu markah, and transformasi genetik. Pilihan tiap alat itu dapat didasarkan pada banyak alasan antara lain efisiensi, kecepatan, kepastian, and asal gen-gen ketahanan. Tanaman tahan serangga hama dihasilkan dari pendekatan konvensional atau bioteknologi mungkin menyebabkan efek serupa dalam pembentukan serangga hama biotipe baru.
    @article{Sutrisno01p9,
    title = {{Pembentukan Tanaman Tahan Serangga Hama melalui Bioteknologi}},
    author = {Sutrisno},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {9 - 12},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Sejumlah tanaman tahan serangga hama telah ditanam di seluruh dunia sejak beberapa waktu yang lalu. Pembentukan tanaman tahan serangga hama akan terus berlanjut untuk mengantisipasi timbulnya serangga hama biotipe baru dan pergeseran status serangga hama utama. Bioteknologi menawarkan alat ampuh untuk digunakan dalam pembuatan tanaman tahan serangga hama secara komplemeter dengan metode konvensional. Alat bioteknologi itu ialah kultur anter, fusi protoplas, kultur embrio, variasi somaklonal, seleksi dibantu markah, and transformasi genetik. Pilihan tiap alat itu dapat didasarkan pada banyak alasan antara lain efisiensi, kecepatan, kepastian, and asal gen-gen ketahanan. Tanaman tahan serangga hama dihasilkan dari pendekatan konvensional atau bioteknologi mungkin menyebabkan efek serupa dalam pembentukan serangga hama biotipe baru.},
    keywords = {tanaman tahan serangga hama, bioteknologi},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_1_09-12.pdf},
    note = {The Development of Insect-resistant Plants through Biotechnology}
    }
  4. Zuraida, Nani and Yati Supriati. 2001. Sweet Potato Farming as Sources for Food Alternative and Carbohydrate Diversification. Buletin agrobio 4 (1):13-23.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Sweet Potato Farming as Sources for Food Alternative and Carbohydrate Diversification ]
    Food diversification is an urgent issue and its successful application is very much expected to support the government program to fulfill the increasing national food due to the fast growth of people population. The lack of watershed supply due to the global climate and environmental changes had also called for the needs of food diversification. Sweet potato is an important crop, particularly as a carbohydrate source. The crop is easy to cultivate and its product is relatively cheap as an alternative food source beside rice. It can be grown on both dry land and irrigated land during the dry season. Besides, the crop also contained higher vitamins (A and C), and mineral (Ca) than rice. Sweet potato consumption pattern by people is still limited to alternative food or supplement traditional food. The sweet potato consumption per capita by the people is also relatively limited. This was due to the fact that food diversity is lacking, since sweet potato utilization as raw materials in food processing industry is not developed yet. In the other hand, yield of sweet potato can be significantly increased, from 9 t/ha to 15-20 t/ha, by growing on irrigated land in the dry season. The utilization of sweet potato as competitive carbohydrate source in food need to be promoted further.
    @article{NaniZuraida01p13,
    title = {{Sweet Potato Farming as Sources for Food Alternative and Carbohydrate Diversification}},
    author = {Nani Zuraida and Yati Supriati},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {13 - 23},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Food diversification is an urgent issue and its successful application is very much expected to support the government program to fulfill the increasing national food due to the fast growth of people population. The lack of watershed supply due to the global climate and environmental changes had also called for the needs of food diversification. Sweet potato is an important crop, particularly as a carbohydrate source. The crop is easy to cultivate and its product is relatively cheap as an alternative food source beside rice. It can be grown on both dry land and irrigated land during the dry season. Besides, the crop also contained higher vitamins (A and C), and mineral (Ca) than rice. Sweet potato consumption pattern by people is still limited to alternative food or supplement traditional food. The sweet potato consumption per capita by the people is also relatively limited. This was due to the fact that food diversity is lacking, since sweet potato utilization as raw materials in food processing industry is not developed yet. In the other hand, yield of sweet potato can be significantly increased, from 9 t/ha to 15-20 t/ha, by growing on irrigated land in the dry season. The utilization of sweet potato as competitive carbohydrate source in food need to be promoted further.},
    keywords = {sweet potato farming, food diversification, source of carbohydrate},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_1_13-23.pdf},
    note = {Usahatani Ubi Jalar sebagai Bahan Pangan Alternatif dan Diversifikasi Sumber Karbohidrat}
    }
  5. Machmud, Muhammad. 2001. Techniques for Conservation and Storage of Microbes. Buletin agrobio 4 (1):24-32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Techniques for Conservation and Storage of Microbes ]
    Microbiologists need to keep their microbial culture collections for different purposes. Therefore, they have to conserve and store their collections in order to maintain survival and genetic stability of the microbes. In this paper, the term microbes is synonymy to microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, yeast, algae, and protozoa, that are saprophytic, epiphytic, parasitic, antagonistic, and pathogenic. Based on the period and objective, the microbial conservation and storage were distinguished into (1) short-term, for a short period of time, such as from isolation until correct identification is done; (2) intermediate-term, such as the duration of a research project, and (3) long-term, for collection, conservation, or research references. The life duration of a microbial isolate is affected by several factors such as the microbial characters, composition, and pH of the medium, aeration, relative humidity, and temperature of the storage. Therefore, there are various different techniques for conservation and storage of the microbial cultures. Generally, the microbiologists agree that the preferred techniques for long-term conservation and storage of microbes are freeze drying or lyophilization technique and cryogenic technique. However, not all laboratory are accessible to facilities for those techniques. Alternative techniques need to be used without reducing the success of the objective of the microbial conservation and storage. This paper is a brief review of general techniques for conservation and storage of microbial cultures with more emphasize on bacteria.
    @article{MuhammadMachmud01p24,
    title = {{Techniques for Conservation and Storage of Microbes}},
    author = {Muhammad Machmud},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {24 - 32},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Microbiologists need to keep their microbial culture collections for different purposes. Therefore, they have to conserve and store their collections in order to maintain survival and genetic stability of the microbes. In this paper, the term microbes is synonymy to microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, yeast, algae, and protozoa, that are saprophytic, epiphytic, parasitic, antagonistic, and pathogenic. Based on the period and objective, the microbial conservation and storage were distinguished into (1) short-term, for a short period of time, such as from isolation until correct identification is done; (2) intermediate-term, such as the duration of a research project, and (3) long-term, for collection, conservation, or research references. The life duration of a microbial isolate is affected by several factors such as the microbial characters, composition, and pH of the medium, aeration, relative humidity, and temperature of the storage. Therefore, there are various different techniques for conservation and storage of the microbial cultures. Generally, the microbiologists agree that the preferred techniques for long-term conservation and storage of microbes are freeze drying or lyophilization technique and cryogenic technique. However, not all laboratory are accessible to facilities for those techniques. Alternative techniques need to be used without reducing the success of the objective of the microbial conservation and storage. This paper is a brief review of general techniques for conservation and storage of microbial cultures with more emphasize on bacteria.},
    keywords = {conservation, storage, microbes},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_1_24-32.pdf},
    note = {Teknik Penyimpanan dan Pemeliharaan Mikroba}
    }
  6. Widowati, Sri. 2001. Use of Side Products of Rice Mills in Support of Agroindustry. Buletin agrobio 4 (1):33-38.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Use of Side Products of Rice Mills in Support of Agroindustry ]
    Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia. Rice production, processing, and distribution activities need more labours and may become sources of income to the farmers. The country’s rice production rate is relatively low, i.e. 50% of the population growth rate. Therefore, rice production need to be imporved by increasing of the crop productivity, breeding through conventional and modern technologies (biotechnology), extensification, as well as post harvest handling and processing of side product from rice mills. Type of rice grain polish affected the physical quality of rice. Type of grain friction resulted in lower rice brewers (2%), glossy, but low whiteness (41%). Type of grain abrassiveness type resulted in higher rice brewers (5%), but seem to be more whiteness (55%). Polishing rate enfluenced the yield recovery of the side product, especially for rice bran; the higher polishing rate, the higher of rice bran recovery. Side product from rice mills are rice husk (15-20%), rice bran (8-12%), and rice brewer (±5%). The annual rice production of the country is approximately 49.8 million ton. This means that about 7.5-10 million ton of rice husk, 4-6 million ton of rice bran, and 2.5 million ton of rice brewer were produced annually. The use of side product from rice mills were still limited. Rice brewer is commonly used material for traditional food product, flour, and high protein rice flour. Rice husk is used for planting media, fuel, component in brick making. Coarse bran was used as animal feed, while the fine bran was used in making traditional food and extrusion product. High nutrient content of stabilized rice bran can be used as raw material in food and non-food industries.
    @article{SriWidowati01p33,
    title = {{Use of Side Products of Rice Mills in Support of Agroindustry}},
    author = {Sri Widowati},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {33 - 38},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia. Rice production, processing, and distribution activities need more labours and may become sources of income to the farmers. The country's rice production rate is relatively low, i.e. 50% of the population growth rate. Therefore, rice production need to be imporved by increasing of the crop productivity, breeding through conventional and modern technologies (biotechnology), extensification, as well as post harvest handling and processing of side product from rice mills. Type of rice grain polish affected the physical quality of rice. Type of grain friction resulted in lower rice brewers (2%), glossy, but low whiteness (41%). Type of grain abrassiveness type resulted in higher rice brewers (5%), but seem to be more whiteness (55%). Polishing rate enfluenced the yield recovery of the side product, especially for rice bran; the higher polishing rate, the higher of rice bran recovery. Side product from rice mills are rice husk (15-20%), rice bran (8-12%), and rice brewer (±5%). The annual rice production of the country is approximately 49.8 million ton. This means that about 7.5-10 million ton of rice husk, 4-6 million ton of rice bran, and 2.5 million ton of rice brewer were produced annually. The use of side product from rice mills were still limited. Rice brewer is commonly used material for traditional food product, flour, and high protein rice flour. Rice husk is used for planting media, fuel, component in brick making. Coarse bran was used as animal feed, while the fine bran was used in making traditional food and extrusion product. High nutrient content of stabilized rice bran can be used as raw material in food and non-food industries.},
    keywords = {rice, side product of rice mill, agroindustry},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_1_33-38.pdf},
    note = {Pemanfaatan Hasil Samping Penggilingan Padi dalam Menunjang Sistem Agroindustri di Pedesaan}
    }
  7. Abdullah, Buang. 2001. Penggunaan Isozim sebagai Markah Biokimia dalam Penelitian Padi. Buletin agrobio 4 (2):39-44.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Penggunaan Isozim sebagai Markah Biokimia dalam Penelitian Padi ]
    Isozim adalah berbagai bentuk molekuler suatu jenis enzim dari jaringan suatu organisme yang mempunyai daya katalisis sama. Produksi isozim dikontrol oleh gen yang berbeda yang mengontrol suatu aktivitas metabolisme. Isozim dapat dideteksi dan diisolasi, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai markah biokimia untuk membedakan makhluk hidup. Pada padi, fungsi isozim telah diteliti dan dipelajari. Hubungan yang erat antar isozim telah diketahui, demikian juga hubungan antara beberapa isozim dengan sifat-sifat penting padi. Isozim mempunyai beberapa kelebihan dibandingkan dengan markah morfologi, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai markah biokimia pada pemuliaan padi. Isozim juga telah digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi plasma nutfah padi. Namun demikian, isozim belum digunakan oleh pemulia padi secara intensif, karena jenis atau jumlah isozim yang berhubungan erat dengan sifat-sifat penting padi masih terbatas.
    @article{BuangAbdullah01p39,
    title = {{Penggunaan Isozim sebagai Markah Biokimia dalam Penelitian Padi}},
    author = {Buang Abdullah},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {39 - 44},
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Isozim adalah berbagai bentuk molekuler suatu jenis enzim dari jaringan suatu organisme yang mempunyai daya katalisis sama. Produksi isozim dikontrol oleh gen yang berbeda yang mengontrol suatu aktivitas metabolisme. Isozim dapat dideteksi dan diisolasi, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai markah biokimia untuk membedakan makhluk hidup. Pada padi, fungsi isozim telah diteliti dan dipelajari. Hubungan yang erat antar isozim telah diketahui, demikian juga hubungan antara beberapa isozim dengan sifat-sifat penting padi. Isozim mempunyai beberapa kelebihan dibandingkan dengan markah morfologi, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai markah biokimia pada pemuliaan padi. Isozim juga telah digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi plasma nutfah padi. Namun demikian, isozim belum digunakan oleh pemulia padi secara intensif, karena jenis atau jumlah isozim yang berhubungan erat dengan sifat-sifat penting padi masih terbatas.},
    keywords = {isozim, markah biokimia, padi},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_39-44.pdf},
    note = {The Use of Isozymes as Biochemical Markers in Rice Research}
    }
  8. Pardal, Saptowo Jumali. 2001. The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering. Buletin agrobio 4 (2):45-49.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering ]
    The fruit provides a proper environment for seeds production, protection, and dispersal. Fruit set and development usually takes places only after pollination and fertilization, and fertilized fruits contain seeds. The development of the fruit in the absence of pollination and fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpy fruits are seedless. Parthenocarpy can have either a genetic basis (genetic or natural parthenocarpy) or it can be artificially induced. On the normal fruits, pollination following with fertilization will increase auxin synthesis and cells division in ovary. It will trigger the fruit set and growth. Fertilized seeds will supply an auxin for fruit development. On the parthenocarpy fruits, seeds as source of auxin are replaced by phytohormones (gibberellins or auxins) or hormone analogues. Parthenocarpy can be artificially induced in several plant species by treating flowers with plant growth factors or by pollination either with incompatible pollen or with X-rays irradiated pollen. In the last few years, several methods have been proposed and/or developed at confering parthenocarpic fruit development by plant genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA methods aimed to confer parthenocarpy can be distinct in two types of approach (1) to unballance embryo development and/or to block seed production in transgenic plants without curtailing fruit development, (2) to express the phytohormone in the desired organ, such as ovary and/or its tissues (i.e. ovules) to trigger parthenocarpic fruit development. The second approach was more successful than the first approach. For example, the use of chimeric gene defh9-iaaM which expresses the IAA specifically on the placenta and ovule can induce parthenocarpic fruits development in several plant species belonging to four families (i.e. Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae).
    @article{SaptowoJumaliPardal01p45,
    title = {{The Development of Parthenocarpic Fruit through Genetic Engineering}},
    author = {Saptowo Jumali Pardal},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {45 - 49},
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {The fruit provides a proper environment for seeds production, protection, and dispersal. Fruit set and development usually takes places only after pollination and fertilization, and fertilized fruits contain seeds. The development of the fruit in the absence of pollination and fertilization is called parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpy fruits are seedless. Parthenocarpy can have either a genetic basis (genetic or natural parthenocarpy) or it can be artificially induced. On the normal fruits, pollination following with fertilization will increase auxin synthesis and cells division in ovary. It will trigger the fruit set and growth. Fertilized seeds will supply an auxin for fruit development. On the parthenocarpy fruits, seeds as source of auxin are replaced by phytohormones (gibberellins or auxins) or hormone analogues. Parthenocarpy can be artificially induced in several plant species by treating flowers with plant growth factors or by pollination either with incompatible pollen or with X-rays irradiated pollen. In the last few years, several methods have been proposed and/or developed at confering parthenocarpic fruit development by plant genetic engineering. Recombinant DNA methods aimed to confer parthenocarpy can be distinct in two types of approach (1) to unballance embryo development and/or to block seed production in transgenic plants without curtailing fruit development, (2) to express the phytohormone in the desired organ, such as ovary and/or its tissues (i.e. ovules) to trigger parthenocarpic fruit development. The second approach was more successful than the first approach. For example, the use of chimeric gene defh9-iaaM which expresses the IAA specifically on the placenta and ovule can induce parthenocarpic fruits development in several plant species belonging to four families (i.e. Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae).},
    keywords = {parthenocarpic fruit, genetic engineering},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_45-49.pdf},
    note = {Pembentukan Buah Partenokarpi melalui Rekayasa Genetika}
    }
  9. Iman, Mohammad and Tri Puji Priyatno. 2001. New Paradigm in Brown Plant Hopper Controls. Buletin agrobio 4 (2):50-55.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: New Paradigm in Brown Plant Hopper Controls ]
    Biotype changes of brown planthopper (BPH) are still interesting phenomena to be studied to develop new pest management strategy. Quick biotype changes are due to strong virulent reaction among single biotype or between various biotypes. The pest management strategies to delay the biotype changes are through gene for gene interaction be developing polygenetic resistant varieties or through rotation of various resistant varieties. This strategy is quite effective, however we have to race with the quick changes of BPH biotypes, which are difficult to detect. These changes are due to the ability of the BPH to adapt on the new resistant variety. BPH normally harbor yeast like intracellular symbionts (YLS). This YLS of BPH belong to the class Pyrenomycetes in the subphylum Ascomycotina. The endosymbionts play a pivotal role in nitrogen metabolism in BPH and provide essential dietary factors. YLS also play an important role in virus transmission by BPH. By suppressing the development of YLS, the pest management strategy is not only effectively control the BPH, but also delay the virus transmission. Interaction between BPH and YLS will produce specific substance, which could be used to develop new method of early biotype detection.
    @article{MohammadIman01p50,
    title = {{New Paradigm in Brown Plant Hopper Controls}},
    author = {Mohammad Iman and Tri Puji Priyatno},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {50 - 55},
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Biotype changes of brown planthopper (BPH) are still interesting phenomena to be studied to develop new pest management strategy. Quick biotype changes are due to strong virulent reaction among single biotype or between various biotypes. The pest management strategies to delay the biotype changes are through gene for gene interaction be developing polygenetic resistant varieties or through rotation of various resistant varieties. This strategy is quite effective, however we have to race with the quick changes of BPH biotypes, which are difficult to detect. These changes are due to the ability of the BPH to adapt on the new resistant variety. BPH normally harbor yeast like intracellular symbionts (YLS). This YLS of BPH belong to the class Pyrenomycetes in the subphylum Ascomycotina. The endosymbionts play a pivotal role in nitrogen metabolism in BPH and provide essential dietary factors. YLS also play an important role in virus transmission by BPH. By suppressing the development of YLS, the pest management strategy is not only effectively control the BPH, but also delay the virus transmission. Interaction between BPH and YLS will produce specific substance, which could be used to develop new method of early biotype detection.},
    keywords = {brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens st{\aa{}}l, biotype, endosymbionts, yeast like symbiont},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_50-55.pdf},
    note = {Paradigma Baru Pengendalian Wereng Batang Coklat (Nilaparvata lugens St{\aa{}}l.), Endosimbion sebagai Sasaran}
    }
  10. Simanungkalit, R. D. M.. 2001. Application of Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer: An Integrated Approach. Buletin agrobio 4 (2):56-61.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: Application of Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer: An Integrated Approach ]
    Biofertilizers are living microorganisms applied to soils in the form of inoculant to facilitate or provide a particular mineral nutrient required by crops through a mutual symbiotic or non-symbiotic relationship. A legume inoculant containing root-nodule bacteria was the first biofertilizer in the world and has been commercialized since more than 100 years ago. Despite this long history the global use of biofertilizers remain insignificant. The energy crisis in the 1970’s and the environmental problems caused by the application of chemical fertilizers have aroused the public interest in applying biofertilizers. The success of food crop production intensifying program in Indonesia has been attributed among others to the increased use of chemical fertilizer from time to time. High-yielding varieties which are mostly grown by farmers require high dosage fertilizer to achieve their potential yields. The removal of chemical fertilizers subsidies by the government has affected the efforts to maintain and increase the current production levels. If they want to maintain their production they must allocate more money, but if they reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers they usually apply or do not apply at all, yield can drop, meaning that their income will decrease and the national production target will not be achieved. The increased interest in use of biofertilizer as complement fertilizers particularly after the removal fertilizer subsidies has increased tremendously as shown by the flooding of various kinds of the so-called biofertilizers in the market. However, not all these biofertilizers can be categorized as biofertilizers. The over-expectation on biofertilizer by considering it as a panacea which can solve all crop nutritional problems and replace chemical fertilizers can really inflict financial losses on farmers. The current research results show that biofertilizers can increase the efficiency of fertilizer use. The use of biofertilizer alone can give the highest efficiency but the low yield levels. To obtain higher yield levels the application of integrated fertilizer management principles is the best by combining the application biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer in a way that the amount of applied chemical fertilizer does not suppress the growth and development of microorganisms in the biofertilizer. The responsive curves of either biofertilizer alone, or chemical fertilizer alone, or chemical fertilizer in combination with biofertilizer all follow the Mitscherlich’s law on diminishing returns due to increased fertilizer dosages.
    @article{Simanungkalit01p56,
    title = {{Application of Biofertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer: An Integrated Approach}},
    author = {R. D. M. Simanungkalit},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {56 - 61},
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Biofertilizers are living microorganisms applied to soils in the form of inoculant to facilitate or provide a particular mineral nutrient required by crops through a mutual symbiotic or non-symbiotic relationship. A legume inoculant containing root-nodule bacteria was the first biofertilizer in the world and has been commercialized since more than 100 years ago. Despite this long history the global use of biofertilizers remain insignificant. The energy crisis in the 1970's and the environmental problems caused by the application of chemical fertilizers have aroused the public interest in applying biofertilizers. The success of food crop production intensifying program in Indonesia has been attributed among others to the increased use of chemical fertilizer from time to time. High-yielding varieties which are mostly grown by farmers require high dosage fertilizer to achieve their potential yields. The removal of chemical fertilizers subsidies by the government has affected the efforts to maintain and increase the current production levels. If they want to maintain their production they must allocate more money, but if they reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers they usually apply or do not apply at all, yield can drop, meaning that their income will decrease and the national production target will not be achieved. The increased interest in use of biofertilizer as complement fertilizers particularly after the removal fertilizer subsidies has increased tremendously as shown by the flooding of various kinds of the so-called biofertilizers in the market. However, not all these biofertilizers can be categorized as biofertilizers. The over-expectation on biofertilizer by considering it as a panacea which can solve all crop nutritional problems and replace chemical fertilizers can really inflict financial losses on farmers. The current research results show that biofertilizers can increase the efficiency of fertilizer use. The use of biofertilizer alone can give the highest efficiency but the low yield levels. To obtain higher yield levels the application of integrated fertilizer management principles is the best by combining the application biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer in a way that the amount of applied chemical fertilizer does not suppress the growth and development of microorganisms in the biofertilizer. The responsive curves of either biofertilizer alone, or chemical fertilizer alone, or chemical fertilizer in combination with biofertilizer all follow the Mitscherlich's law on diminishing returns due to increased fertilizer dosages.},
    keywords = {chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer, integrated fertilizer management},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_56-61.pdf},
    note = {Aplikasi Pupuk Hayati dan Pupuk Kimia: Suatu Pendekatan Terpadu}
    }
  11. Sudjadi, Muhammad and Yati Supriati. 2001. The Improvement of Peanut Production Technology in Indonesia. Buletin agrobio 4 (2):62-68.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [PDF: The Improvement of Peanut Production Technology in Indonesia ]
    Peanut is an important commercial agricultural commodity which is highly competitive to other food crops since it offered more benefit to the farmers. Besides it has high lipid and protein content. The average peanut productivity in Indonesia is still low, therefore it could not fulfill the domestic demand. Improvement of peanut production need to be done through crop intensification, which are focused on the lowland, upland, and acidic soil area. On the lowland area, peanut cvs. Gajah, Kelinci, and local variety which were grown at a 20 cm x 20 cm plant spacing, fertilized with 25 kg urea, 50 kg TSP, and 50 kg KCl/ha, respectively, yielded up to 2.0 t/ha, with an average of 1.5 t/ha. Under this condition, irrigation was done five times at an interval of 10-15 days, while pest control was done as necessary. On upland area, cv. Tuban that was grown at a 40 cm x 10 cm plant spacing or 250.000 plant/ha and fertilized with 50 kg urea, 75 kg TSP, and 75 KCl/ha, yielded 1.5-2.0 t/ha. In an effort to minimize yield losses due to pests and diseases, methyl thiophanate 70% and monocrotophos 150g/l were applied at 7-9 weeks after sowing, while carbofuran 3% was broadcasted just before sowing. The use of soil conditioner in the upland area also increased peanut yield by 20% on a Latosol and 69% on Grumusol soil types. In acidic soil area, soil amelioration using green manure, organic matter, and lime undoubtedly improved soil fertility, thus improved peanut yield. In order to maximize the yield of peanut per hectare in the acid soil, the use of high yielding variety, combined with proper plant population, planting season, and integrated pest control were the main factors for improving peanut yield in the area. On the other hand, however, there are a number of constraints to the small scale farmer to implement the improved technology for peanut cropping. This, particularly, due to the lack of farmers’ technical knowledge, market information, and financial supports. Generally, government policy that is conducive to peanut farmers, such as in maintaining availability of inputs, price stability, and trade system are necessary to promote and improve peanut production in the country.
    @article{MuhammadSudjadi01p62,
    title = {{The Improvement of Peanut Production Technology in Indonesia}},
    author = {Muhammad Sudjadi and Yati Supriati},
    journal = {Buletin AgroBio},
    pages = {62 - 68},
    volume = {4},
    number = {2},
    year = {2001},
    abstract = {Peanut is an important commercial agricultural commodity which is highly competitive to other food crops since it offered more benefit to the farmers. Besides it has high lipid and protein content. The average peanut productivity in Indonesia is still low, therefore it could not fulfill the domestic demand. Improvement of peanut production need to be done through crop intensification, which are focused on the lowland, upland, and acidic soil area. On the lowland area, peanut cvs. Gajah, Kelinci, and local variety which were grown at a 20 cm x 20 cm plant spacing, fertilized with 25 kg urea, 50 kg TSP, and 50 kg KCl/ha, respectively, yielded up to 2.0 t/ha, with an average of 1.5 t/ha. Under this condition, irrigation was done five times at an interval of 10-15 days, while pest control was done as necessary. On upland area, cv. Tuban that was grown at a 40 cm x 10 cm plant spacing or 250.000 plant/ha and fertilized with 50 kg urea, 75 kg TSP, and 75 KCl/ha, yielded 1.5-2.0 t/ha. In an effort to minimize yield losses due to pests and diseases, methyl thiophanate 70% and monocrotophos 150g/l were applied at 7-9 weeks after sowing, while carbofuran 3% was broadcasted just before sowing. The use of soil conditioner in the upland area also increased peanut yield by 20% on a Latosol and 69% on Grumusol soil types. In acidic soil area, soil amelioration using green manure, organic matter, and lime undoubtedly improved soil fertility, thus improved peanut yield. In order to maximize the yield of peanut per hectare in the acid soil, the use of high yielding variety, combined with proper plant population, planting season, and integrated pest control were the main factors for improving peanut yield in the area. On the other hand, however, there are a number of constraints to the small scale farmer to implement the improved technology for peanut cropping. This, particularly, due to the lack of farmers' technical knowledge, market information, and financial supports. Generally, government policy that is conducive to peanut farmers, such as in maintaining availability of inputs, price stability, and trade system are necessary to promote and improve peanut production in the country.},
    keywords = {peanut, production technology, lowland, upland, acid soil},
    file = {http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id/terbitan/pdf/agrobio_4_2_62-68.pdf},
    note = {Perbaikan Teknologi Produksi Kacang Tanah di Indonesia}
    }